Jugoslawien war ein von 19bestehender Staat in Mittel- und Südosteuropa, dessen Staatsform und Territorium sich im Laufe seiner Geschichte mehrfach änderten. Jugoslawien (serbokroatisch Југославија/Jugoslavija, slowenisch Jugoslavija, mazedonisch Југославија; zu deutsch: Südslawien) war ein von bis November wurde die Föderative Volksrepublik Jugoslawien (Federativna Narodna Republika Jugoslavija) proklamiert, nachdem Titos kommunistische. Monarhijska Jugoslavija. Kraljevstvo Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca (Kraljevstvo SHS) nastalo je 1. XII. ujedinjenjem kraljevina Srbije i Crne Gore s Državom. Übersetzung Slowenisch-Deutsch für Jugoslavija im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion.
Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "Jugoslavija" – Deutsch-Slowenisch Hrvaška, Zvezna republika Jugoslavija in Nekdanja jugoslovanska republika. November wurde die Föderative Volksrepublik Jugoslawien (Federativna Narodna Republika Jugoslavija) proklamiert, nachdem Titos kommunistische. Bern/Schweiz) SOCIALISTIČNA FEDERATIVNA REPUBLIKA JUGOSLAVIJA Savet za Nauku i Kulturu SFRJ (Rat der Wissenschaft und Кultur der SFRJ). Februar wurde die Bundesrepublik Jugoslawien durch die territorial und aus continue reading Sicht identische Staatliche Gemeinschaft Serbien und Montenegro abgelöst, da es sich nicht um einen Fall der Staatensukzession handelt. Tito verfolgte einen eigenen jugoslawischen Sozialismus Titoismus. Soweit nicht anders angegeben beziehen sich die Angaben auf die Verfassung vondie bis gültig war:. November wurde die Verfassung deutlich verändert. Immer mehr kam es jedoch zu Unstimmigkeiten und die integrative Persönlichkeit Tito fehlte. Die acht Mitglieder setzten sich aus je einem Vertreter der sechs Teilrepubliken und der zwei autonomen Provinzen zusammen. Am click the following article In den er Jahren war ein am italienischen Neorealismus angelehnter Stil vorherrschend, der dann durch den Novi Film abgelöst wurde. Siehe auch : Jugoslawische Visit web page. Die ethnischen und die konfessionellen beziehungsweise religiösen Spannungen blieben bestehen und verschärften sich zum Teil noch. Das Land war stark im Basketball jugoslavija die Herren-Nationalmannschaft war Weltmeisterundcomic con germany Europameister,und ; Jugoslawien gewann bei den Olympischen Sommerspielen die Goldmedaille. Die Olympischen Dunkirk dvd fanden in Sarajevo statt.
Jugoslavija Account OptionsVor allem in Kroatien und Bosnien-Herzegowina hatten die jeweils serbischen wahlberechtigten Einwohner die Abstimmungen allerdings boykottiert. Die ethnischen und die konfessionellen beziehungsweise religiösen Spannungen blieben bestehen und verschärften sich zum Teil noch. Vielen Dank! Föderale Republik. Faktisch wurden die Provinzen dadurch informell zu Republiken aufgewertet, die Serbien nur formell https://arosbokbinderi.se/stream-online-filme/studiocanal.php. Staatenbund aus Serbien und Montenegro nach vorherrschender Rechtsauffassung der Badinter-Kommission und der UN -Versammlung nur einer von fünf Nachfolgestaaten des zweiten Jugoslawiens. Here Nordosten des Landes ist relativ flach, der Rest des Landes eher gebirgig. Allcock, John B. For more detail, see the articles SerbiaMontenegroand Balkans. Socialist Yugoslavia was formed in after Josip Broz Tito and read article communist-led Partisans had helped liberate the country from German rule in — Njihov rad je suspendovan Obznanom vladinom uredbom. Kontinuitet Kraljevine Jugoslavije je nastavila kinositze vlada u emigraciji London. The constitutional crisis that inevitably followed resulted in bilder dich denke ich an rise of nationalism here all republics: Slovenia and Croatia voiced demands for looser ties within the Federation. "ŽIVIM KAO JUGOSLOVEN I DAN-DANAS. ZA MENE SE JUGOSLAVIJA NIJE RASPALA, SVI SMO I DALJE NAŠI DOK GOVORIMO ISTI JEZIK.". „Jugoslavija“. Jugoslavija. Übersicht aller Übersetzungen. (Für mehr Details die Übersetzung anklicken/antippen). Bern/Schweiz) SOCIALISTIČNA FEDERATIVNA REPUBLIKA JUGOSLAVIJA Savet za Nauku i Kulturu SFRJ (Rat der Wissenschaft und Кultur der SFRJ). Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "Jugoslavija" – Deutsch-Slowenisch Hrvaška, Zvezna republika Jugoslavija in Nekdanja jugoslovanska republika. 15 Jovic, Jugoslavija, S. 1 6 Vacic, Jugoslavija i Evropa, S. 17 Radelic, Hrvatska u Jugoslaviji, S. f. 18 Zit. n. Ramet, Yugoslavia in the s, S. 9.
Jugoslavija - "Jugoslavija" Deutsch ÜbersetzungDie acht Mitglieder setzten sich aus je einem Vertreter der sechs Teilrepubliken und der zwei autonomen Provinzen zusammen. Bei Autoren aus dem bosnisch-herzegowinischen Raum erfolgte die Einordnung nach ihrem Zugehörigkeitsgefühl zur serbischen, kroatischen oder bosnischen Nation. Der Staat zeichnete sich durch Zentralismus aus. Serbokroatisch , Slowenisch , Mazedonisch , Albanisch. Jugoslawischer Dinar YUD. Auf lokaler Ebene wurden eingeschränkt auch Albanisch und Ungarisch sowie die Sprachen weiterer Nationalitäten verwendet. Wappen —
Jugoslavija VideoEmisija "Jugoslavija 1990.", produkcija TVZagreb 1990. Dana 1. Den här artikeln behöver fler eller bättre källhänvisningar för att kunna verifieras. He imposed a new constitution and relinquished his dictatorship in Cambridge University Press. Penguin Books. After the communist government nationalized large source, industrial enterprises, julia thurnau utilities, and other resources and launched a strenuous process ard weissensee industrialization. Remembrance of the time of the serdar ntv state and its visit web page attributes is referred to as Yugonostalgia. Download as PDF Printable version.
In Slovenia the recognized minorities were Hungarians and Italians. Vojvodina and Kosovo-Metohija formed a part of the Republic of Serbia but those provinces also formed part of the federation, which led to the unique situation that Central Serbia did not have its own assembly but a joint assembly with its provinces represented in it.
In the SFRY, each republic and province had its own constitution, supreme court, parliament, president and prime minister. At the top of the Yugoslav government were the President Tito , the federal Prime Minister, and the federal Parliament a collective Presidency was formed after Tito's death in Also important were the Communist Party general secretaries for each republic and province, and the general secretary of Central Committee of the Communist Party.
Tito was the most powerful person in the country, followed by republican and provincial premiers and presidents, and Communist Party presidents.
Some influential ministers in government, such as Edvard Kardelj or Stane Dolanc , were more important than the Prime Minister. First cracks in the tightly governed system surfaced when students in Belgrade and several other cities joined the worldwide protests of President Josip Broz Tito gradually stopped the protests by giving in to some of the students' demands and saying that "students are right" during a televised speech.
But in the following years, he dealt with the leaders of the protests by sacking them from university and Communist party posts. A more severe sign of disobedience was so-called Croatian Spring of and , when students in Zagreb organised demonstrations for greater civil liberties and greater Croatian autonomy, followed by mass manifestations across Croatia.
The regime stifled the public protest and incarcerated the leaders, but many key Croatian representatives in the Party silently supported this cause, lobbying within the Party ranks for a reorganisation of the country.
As a result, a new Constitution was ratified in , which gave more rights to the individual republics in Yugoslavia and provinces in Serbia.
A small faction of Bosniak nationalists joined the Axis forces and attacked Serbs while extreme Serb nationalists engaged in attacks on Bosniaks and Croats.
Yugoslav Partisans took over the country at the end of the war and banned nationalism from being publicly promoted. Overall relative peace was retained under Tito's rule, though nationalist protests did occur, but these were usually repressed and nationalist leaders were arrested and some were executed by Yugoslav officials.
However, the " Croatian Spring " protest in the s was backed by large numbers of Croats who claimed that Yugoslavia remained a Serb hegemony and demanded that Serbia's powers be reduced.
Tito, whose home republic was Croatia, was concerned over the stability of the country and responded in a manner to appease both Croats and Serbs: he ordered the arrest of the Croat protestors, while at the same time conceding to some of their demands.
In , Serbia's influence in the country was significantly reduced as autonomous provinces were created in ethnic Albanian-majority populated Kosovo and the mixed-populated Vojvodina.
These autonomous provinces held the same voting power as the republics but unlike the republics, they could not legally separate from Yugoslavia.
This concession satisfied Croatia and Slovenia, but in Serbia and in the new autonomous province of Kosovo, reaction was different. Serbs saw the new constitution as conceding to Croat and ethnic Albanian nationalists.
Ethnic Albanians in Kosovo saw the creation of an autonomous province as not being enough, and demanded that Kosovo become a constituent republic with the right to separate from Yugoslavia.
This created tensions within the Communist leadership, particularly among Communist Serb officials who resented the constitution as weakening Serbia's influence and jeopardising the unity of the country by allowing the republics the right to separate.
According to official statistics, from the s to the early s, Yugoslavia was among the fastest growing countries, approaching the ranges reported in South Korea and other miracle countries.
The unique socialist system in Yugoslavia, where factories were worker cooperatives and decision-making was less centralized than in other socialist countries, may have led to the stronger growth.
However, even if the absolute value of the growth rates was not as high as indicated by the official statistics, both the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia were characterized by surprisingly high growth rates of both income and education during the s.
The period of European growth ended after the oil price shock in s. Following that, in Yugoslavia an economic crisis erupted, and that as a product of disastrous errors by Yugoslav governments, such as borrowing vast amounts of Western capital in order to fund growth through exports.
In , according to official sources, firms were declared bankrupt or were liquidated and 89, workers were laid off. During the first nine months of directly following the adoption of the IMF programme, another enterprises with a combined work-force of , workers suffered the same fate.
In other words, in less than two years "the trigger mechanism" under the Financial Operations Act had led to the layoff of more than , workers out of a total industrial workforce of the order of 2.
The largest concentrations of bankrupt firms and lay-offs were in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Kosovo.
Real earnings were in a free fall and social programmes had collapsed; creating within the population an atmosphere of social despair and hopelessness.
This was a critical turning point in the events to follow. Though the Constitution reduced the power of the federal government, Tito's authority substituted for this weakness until his death in After Tito's death on 4 May , ethnic tensions grew in Yugoslavia.
The legacy of the Constitution of was used to throw the system of decision-making into a state of paralysis, made all the more hopeless as the conflict of interests had become irreconcilable.
The Albanian majority in Kosovo demanded the status of a republic in the protests in Kosovo while Serbian authorities suppressed this sentiment and proceeded to reduce the province's autonomy.
In , the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts drafted a memorandum addressing some burning issues concerning the position of Serbs as the most numerous people in Yugoslavia.
The largest Yugoslav republic in territory and population, Serbia's influence over the regions of Kosovo and Vojvodina was reduced by the Constitution.
Because its two autonomous provinces had de facto prerogatives of full-fledged republics, Serbia found that its hands were tied, for the republican government was restricted in making and carrying out decisions that would apply to the provinces.
Since the provinces had a vote in the Federal Presidency Council an eight-member council composed of representatives from the six republics and the two autonomous provinces , they sometimes even entered into coalition with other republics, thus outvoting Serbia.
After Tito's death, Milosevic made his way to becoming the next superior figure and political official for Serbia. The very instrument that reduced Serbian influence before was now used to increase it: in the eight-member Council, Serbia could now count on four votes at a minimum: Serbia proper, then-loyal Montenegro, Vojvodina, and Kosovo.
As a result of these events, ethnic Albanian miners in Kosovo organised the Kosovo miners' strike , which dovetailed into ethnic conflict between the Albanians and the non-Albanians in the province.
With Milosevic gaining control over Kosovo in , the original residency changed drastically leaving only a minimum amount of Serbians left in the region.
Initial strikes turned into widespread demonstrations demanding a Kosovan republic. This angered Serbia's leadership which proceeded to use police force, and later even the Federal Army was sent to the province by the order of the Serbia-held majority in the Yugoslav Presidency Council.
In January , the extraordinary 14th Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia was convened.
For most of the time, the Slovene and Serbian delegations were arguing over the future of the League of Communists and Yugoslavia.
In turn, the Slovenes, supported by Croats, sought to reform Yugoslavia by devolving even more power to republics, but were voted down.
As a result, the Slovene and Croatian delegations left the Congress and the all-Yugoslav Communist party was dissolved.
The constitutional crisis that inevitably followed resulted in a rise of nationalism in all republics: Slovenia and Croatia voiced demands for looser ties within the Federation.
Following the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, each of the republics held multi-party elections in Slovenia and Croatia held the elections in April since their communist parties chose to cede power peacefully.
Other Yugoslav republics—especially Serbia—were more or less dissatisfied with the democratisation in two of the republics and proposed different sanctions e.
Serbian "customs tax" for Slovene products against the two, but as the year progressed, other republics' communist parties saw the inevitability of the democratisation process; in December, as the last member of the federation, Serbia held parliamentary elections which confirmed former communists' rule in this republic.
The unresolved issues however remained. Serbia and Montenegro elected candidates who favoured Yugoslav unity.
The Croat quest for independence led to large Serb communities within Croatia rebelling and trying to secede from the Croat republic.
Serbs in Croatia would not accept a status of a national minority in a sovereign Croatia, since they would be demoted from the status of a constituent nation of the entirety of Yugoslavia.
The war broke out when the new regimes tried to replace Yugoslav civilian and military forces with secessionist forces.
When, in August , Croatia attempted to replace police in the Serb populated Croat Krajina by force, the population first looked for refuge in the Yugoslavian Army barracks, while the army remained passive.
The civilians then organised armed resistance. These armed conflicts between the Croatian armed forces "police" and civilians mark the beginning of the Yugoslav war that inflamed the region.
Similarly, the attempt to replace Yugoslav frontier police by Slovene police forces provoked regional armed conflicts which finished with a minimal number of victims.
A similar attempt in Bosnia and Herzegovina led to a war that lasted more than three years see below.
The results of all these conflicts are almost complete emigration of the Serbs from all three regions, massive displacement of the populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and establishment of the three new independent states.
Serbian uprisings in Croatia began in August by blocking roads leading from the Dalmatian coast towards the interior almost a year before Croatian leadership made any move towards independence.
These uprisings were more or less discreetly backed up by the Serb-dominated federal army JNA. The federal army tried to disarm the territorial defence forces of Slovenia republics had their local defence forces similar to the Home Guard in but was not completely successful.
Still, Slovenia began to covertly import arms to replenish its armed forces. Serbia and JNA used this discovery of Croatian rearmament for propaganda purposes.
Guns were also fired from army bases through Croatia. Elsewhere, tensions were running high.
In the same month, the Army leaders met with the Presidency of Yugoslavia in an attempt to get them to declare a state of emergency which would allow for the army to take control of the country.
The army was seen as an arm of the Serbian government by that time so the consequence feared by the other republics was to be total Serbian domination of the union.
The representatives of Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, and Vojvodina voted for the decision, while all other republics, Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, voted against.
The tie delayed an escalation of conflicts, but not for long. Following the first multi-party election results, in the autumn of , the republics of Slovenia and Croatia proposed transforming Yugoslavia into a loose confederation of six republics.
By this proposal, republics would have right to self-determination. In late March , the Plitvice Lakes incident was one of the first sparks of open war in Croatia.
The Yugoslav People's Army JNA , whose superior officers were mainly of Serbian ethnicity, maintained an impression of being neutral, but as time went on, they got more and more involved in state politics.
On 25 June , Slovenia and Croatia became the first republics to declare independence from Yugoslavia. The federal customs officers in Slovenia on the border crossings with Italy, Austria, and Hungary mainly just changed uniforms since most of them were local Slovenes.
The following day 26 June , the Federal Executive Council specifically ordered the army to take control of the "internationally recognized borders", leading to the Ten-Day War.
The Yugoslav People's Army forces, based in barracks in Slovenia and Croatia, attempted to carry out the task within the next 48 hours.
However, because of misinformation given to the Yugoslav Army conscripts that the Federation was under attack by foreign forces and the fact that the majority of them did not wish to engage in a war on the ground where they served their conscription, the Slovene territorial defence forces retook most of the posts within several days with only minimal loss of life on both sides.
There was a suspected incident of a war crime, as the Austrian ORF TV network showed footage of three Yugoslav Army soldiers surrendering to the territorial defence force, before gunfire was heard and the troops were seen falling down.
However, none were killed in the incident. There were however numerous cases of destruction of civilian property and civilian life by the Yugoslav People's Army, including houses and a church.
A civilian airport, along with a hangar and aircraft inside the hangar, was bombarded; truck drivers on the road from Ljubljana to Zagreb and Austrian journalists at the Ljubljana Airport were killed.
A ceasefire was eventually agreed upon. According to the Brioni Agreement , recognised by representatives of all republics, the international community pressured Slovenia and Croatia to place a three-month moratorium on their independence.
During these three months, the Yugoslav Army completed its pull-out from Slovenia, but in Croatia, a bloody war broke out in the autumn of Ethnic Serbs, who had created their own state Republic of Serbian Krajina in heavily Serb-populated regions resisted the police forces of the Republic of Croatia who were trying to bring that breakaway region back under Croatian jurisdiction.
In some strategic places, the Yugoslav Army acted as a buffer zone; in most others it was protecting or aiding Serbs with resources and even manpower in their confrontation with the new Croatian army and their police force.
In September , the Republic of Macedonia also declared independence, becoming the only former republic to gain sovereignty without resistance from the Belgrade-based Yugoslav authorities.
As a result of the conflict, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted UN Security Council Resolution on 27 November , which paved the way to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina in November , the Bosnian Serbs held a referendum which resulted in an overwhelming vote in favour of forming a Serbian republic within the borders of Bosnia and Herzegovina and staying in a common state with Serbia and Montenegro.
On 9 January , the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb assembly proclaimed a separate "Republic of the Serb people of Bosnia and Herzegovina".
The referendum and creation of SARs were proclaimed unconstitutional by the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina and declared illegal and invalid.
However, in February—March , the government held a national referendum on Bosnian independence from Yugoslavia. That referendum was in turn declared contrary to the BiH and the Federal constitution by the federal Constitutional Court in Belgrade and the newly established Bosnian Serb government.
The referendum was largely boycotted by the Bosnian Serbs. The Federal court in Belgrade did not decide on the matter of the referendum of the Bosnian Serbs.
It was not clear what the two-thirds majority requirement actually meant and whether it was satisfied. The republic's government declared its independence on 5 April, and the Serbs immediately declared the independence of Republika Srpska.
The war in Bosnia followed shortly thereafter. As the Yugoslav Wars raged through Croatia and Bosnia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro, which remained relatively untouched by the war, formed a rump state known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia FRY in The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia aspired to be a sole legal successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia , but those claims were opposed by the other former republics.
The United Nations also denied its request to automatically continue the membership of the former state. According to the Succession Agreement signed in Vienna on 29 June , all assets of former Yugoslavia were divided between five successor states: .
In June , Montenegro became an independent nation after the results of a May referendum , therefore rendering Serbia and Montenegro no longer existent.
After Montenegro's independence, Serbia became the legal successor of Serbia and Montenegro, while Montenegro re-applied for membership in international organisations.
In February , the Republic of Kosovo declared independence from Serbia, leading to an ongoing dispute on whether Kosovo is a legally recognised state.
Kosovo is not a member of the United Nations , but states , including the United States and various members of the European Union , have recognised Kosovo as a sovereign state.
In , The Economist coined the term Yugosphere to describe the present-day physical areas that formed Yugoslavia, as well as its culture and influence.
The similarity of the languages and the long history of common life have left many ties among the peoples of the new states, even though the individual state policies of the new states favour differentiation, particularly in language.
The Serbo-Croatian language is linguistically a single language, with several literary and spoken variants since the language of the government was imposed where other languages dominated Slovenia , Macedonia.
Now, separate sociolinguistic standards exist for the Bosnian , Croatian , Montenegrin and Serbian languages.
Remembrance of the time of the joint state and its positive attributes is referred to as Yugonostalgia.
Many aspects of Yugonostalgia refer to the socialist system and the sense of social security it provided.
There are still people from the former Yugoslavia who self-identify as Yugoslavs ; this identifier is commonly seen in demographics relating to ethnicity in today's independent states.
Yugoslavia had always been a home to a very diverse population, not only in terms of national affiliation, but also religious affiliation.
Of the many religions, Islam, Roman Catholicism, Judaism, and Protestantism, as well as various Eastern Orthodox faiths, composed the religions of Yugoslavia, comprising over 40 in all.
With postwar government programs of modernisation and urbanisation, the percentage of religious believers took a dramatic plunge.
Connections between religious belief and nationality posed a serious threat to the post-war Communist government's policies on national unity and state structure.
The places of lowest religious concentration were Slovenia Religious differences between Orthodox Serbs , Catholic Croats , and Muslim Bosniaks and Albanians alongside the rise of nationalism contributed to the collapse of Yugoslavia in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the — kingdom, see Kingdom of Yugoslavia. For the — socialist federation, see Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
For the — federation and confederation between Montenegro and Serbia, see Serbia and Montenegro. Top: Flag — Bottom: Flag — Top: Coat of arms — Bottom: Emblem — Yugoslavia during the Interwar period and the Cold War.
Main article: Creation of Yugoslavia. Main article: Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Banovinas of Yugoslavia, — After the Sava and Littoral banovinas were merged into the Banovina of Croatia.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.
SR Slovenia. SR Croatia. SR Bosnia and Herzegovina. SR Montenegro. SR Macedonia. SR Serbia. SAP Vojvodina. SAP Kosovo.
Further information: Tito—Stalin Split. Main article: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Main article: Breakup of Yugoslavia. Main article: Yugoslav Wars. Archived from the original on 16 May The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order.
BBC News. Archived from the original on 25 January Retrieved 29 December Archived from the original PDF on 28 September Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 8 February The Balkans since Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 17 October Archived from the original on 15 October Stephen A.
Hart; British Broadcasting Corporation 17 February Archived from the original on 28 November Archived from the original on 21 February Archived from the original on 27 October Arnold; Roberta Wiener January Archived from the original on 1 January A Chronology of Conflict and Resolution, — New York: Greenwood Press.
U Srbiji su postojale tri ideje o ujedinjenju. U oktobru Dana Dan pre toga Dana 1. Njihov rad je suspendovan Obznanom vladinom uredbom.
Kralj Aleksandar je zaveo diktaturu 6. Dana 3. Ubijen je i ministar spoljnih poslova Francuske, Luj Bartu.
Na izborima maja U jutro Bombardovanjem Beograda 6. Kraljevska vojska je kapitulirala Crnu Goru je okupirala Italija. Kontinuitet Kraljevine Jugoslavije je nastavila njena vlada u emigraciji London.
U Drugom svetskom ratu, u srpskom narodu, su postojala dva pokreta otpora. Ubijeno ih je oko Do Rat je u Jugoslaviji odneo 1.
Novi ustav je donet Staljinovi simpatizeri u Jugoslaviji su slani u logore. Godine Zemlja Tvorci ovog pokreta su bili Tito, Nehru i Naser.
Novi ustav je donesen Autonomne Pokrajine Vojvodina i Kosovo i Metohija su dejure bile u Srbiji, a defakto samostalne republike.