Operation Marijuana Alle Kritiken & Kommentare zu Operation Marijuana
Der junge Quinn wächst behütet bei seinen Eltern in der Vorstadt auf, wo er von ihnen unterrichtet wird. Seine Eltern sind außerdem Neu-Hippies, die eine Marihuana Plantage besitzen. Als Quinn aber in seiner neuen Nachbarin Crystal das Mädchen. Operation Marijuana (Originaltitel Growing Op, Alternativtitel Highschoolgirls und Marijuana) ist eine kanadische Filmkomödie des Regisseurs Michael Melski. arosbokbinderi.se - Kaufen Sie Operation Marijuana günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer. Operation Marijuana ein Film von Michael Melski mit Wallace Langham, Rosanna Arquette. Inhaltsangabe: Der junge Quinn (Steven Yaffee). Komplette Handlung und Informationen zu Operation Marijuana. Operation Marijuana erzählt die Geschichte des jungen Quinn, der mit seinen Eltern zusammen.
Filmdaten. Deutscher Titel, Operation Marijuana. Originaltitel, Growing Op. Produktionsland, Kanada. Originalsprache, Englisch. Erscheinungsjahr, Operation Marijuana ein Film von Michael Melski mit Wallace Langham, Rosanna Arquette. Inhaltsangabe: Der junge Quinn (Steven Yaffee). Operation Marijuana jetzt legal online anschauen. Der Film ist aktuell bei Netzkino verfügbar. Quinn ist gerade 18 geworden und war noch nie im Leben auf. Some strains perform better than others in outdoor settings, an attribute that depends on different conditions, variables and aspects. Marijuana growers often root clones in peat pellets compressed peat moss or in rock wool. Marijuana causes the blood vessels of the body to relax, tai chi of man process called vasodilation. The Wrong Anime drachen Inflorescence that produce no seeds are called sin semilla which translates to "without seeds" in Spanish, and is often misspelled as one word. New to growing cannabis? The outstanding loan from Kaufman.
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Much like smoking cigarettes , abstaining from marijuana in the weeks before surgery can decrease the likelihood of complications during and after surgery.
Unfortunately, research on the topic of marijuana use and the effects during surgery is limited. It should become more plentiful in the future as medicinal marijuana has been legalized in multiple states and recreational use in a growing number , making it easier to gather scientific data on the topic.
We do know that marijuana, while effective for decreasing nausea and some other health-related benefits, has the potential to interact with anesthesia.
Contrary to popular wisdom, marijuana smoking is not a healthier option than cigarettes. It can lead to lung cancer and other respiratory problems.
The process of inhaling large amounts of marijuana, then holding it in the lungs for extended periods of time to increase the amount absorbed, leads to increased exposure to cancer-causing chemicals.
The chronic coughing, wheezing and difficulty breathing that long-term cigarette smokers experience also occur in marijuana users.
When talking about surgery anesthesia and marijuana, all types of marijuana should be avoided. That means smoking marijuana, edibles, and synthetic marijuana.
Synthetic marijuana, in particular, is poorly understood, unregulated, and highly variable in content. For this reason, it is impossible to predict the reaction that might occur with exposure to anesthesia.
Smoking marijuana regularly leads to the same risks of complications faced by patients who smoke cigarettes. This means that marijuana smokers are more likely than non-smokers to be on the ventilator longer, have a higher risk of developing pneumonia after surgery, and greater scarring of incisions.
The use of marijuana, especially immediately prior to surgery, can change the doses needed for sedation. One study looked at the doses of propofol required to intubate patients who routinely smoked marijuana with non-marijuana using patients.
One patient who smoked marijuana 4 hours prior to surgery was the topic of a case study, after experiencing an airway obstruction during the procedure.
It is also believed that regular users of marijuana—whether it is smoked or eaten—are more likely to experience agitation.
The use of marijuana the day before surgery, and especially in the hours prior to the procedure, can cause more dramatic effects. Fatal Traffic Collision — June 24, Illegal Marijuana Grow Operation — June 23, All Environment Government.
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This article presents common techniques and facts regarding the cultivation of cannabis , primarily for the production and consumption of its infructescences "buds" or "flowers".
Cultivation techniques for other purposes such as hemp production differ. Soil is required, except for cannabis grown with hydroponics or aeroponics.
Under artificial light, the plant typically remains under a regime of 16—24 hours of light and 0—8 hours of darkness from the germination until flowering, with longer light periods being conducive to vegetative growth, and longer dark periods being conducive to flowering.
However, generally cannabis only requires thirteen hours of continuous light to remain in the vegetative stage.
Typically, flowering is induced by providing at least 12 hours per day of complete darkness. Flowering in cannabis is triggered by a hormonal reaction within the plant that is initiated by an increase in length of its dark cycle, i.
Some Indica varieties require as little as 8 hours of dark to begin flowering, whereas some Sativa varieties require up to 13 hours. Watering frequency and amount is determined by many factors, including temperature and light, the age, size and stage of growth of the plant and the medium's ability to retain water.
A conspicuous sign of water problems is the wilting of leaves. This is mainly due to oxygen not being able to enter the root system. They begin to consume plant roots, beneficial aerobic bacteria, as well as nutrients and fertilizer.
Humidity is an important part of plant growth. Dry conditions slow the rate of photosynthesis. Nutrients are taken up from the soil by roots.
Nutrient soil amendments fertilizers are added when the soil nutrients are depleted. Fertilizers can be chemical or organic, liquid or powder, and usually contain a mixture of ingredients.
Commercial fertilizers indicate the levels of NPK nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. In general, cannabis needs more N than P and K during all life phases.
The presence of secondary nutrients calcium , magnesium , sulfur is recommended. Micronutrients e.
Because cannabis' nutrient needs vary widely depending on the variety, they are usually determined by trial and error and fertilizers are applied sparingly to avoid burning the plant.
Germination is the process in which the seeds sprout and the root emerges. In cannabis, it takes from 12 hours to 8 days. Warmth, darkness, and moisture initiate metabolic processes such as the activation of hormones that trigger the expansion of the embryo within the seed.
Then the seed coat cracks open and a small embryonic root emerges and begins growing downward because of gravitropism , if placed in a proper growing medium.
Soon after 2—4 days the root is anchored and two circular embryonic leaves cotyledons emerge in search of light and the remains of the seed shell are pushed away.
This marks the beginning of the seedling stage. Germination is initiated by soaking seeds either between wet paper towels, in a cup of water at room temperature, in wet peat pellets, or directly in potting soil.
Peat pellets are often used as a germinating medium because the saturated pellets with their seedlings can be planted directly into the intended growing medium with a minimum of shock to the plant.
It lasts from 1 to 4 weeks and is the period of greatest vulnerability in the life cycle of the plant, requiring moderate humidity levels, medium to high light intensity, and adequate but not excessive soil moisture.
Most indoor growers use compact fluorescent or T5 fluorescent lights during this stage as they produce little heat. HPS and MH lights produce large amounts of radiant heat and increase the rate of transpiration in the plant which can quickly dry out seedlings with their small root systems.
Duration: 1—2 months indoors. In this stage the plant needs a significant amount of light and nutrients, depending on the genetics of the particular plant.
It continues to grow vertically and produce new leaves. The sex is starting to reveal itself, which is a sign that the next stage begins.
Concurrently the root system expands downwards in search of more water and food. When the plant possesses seven sets of true leaves and the 8th is barely visible in the center of the growth tip, or shoot apical meristem SAM , the plant has entered the vegetative phase of growth.
During the vegetative phase, the plant directs its energy resources primarily to the growth of leaves, stems, and roots.
A strong root system is required for strong floral development. A plant needs 1 or 2 months to mature before blooming.
The plant is ready when it has revealed its sex. Plant size is a good indicator of sex. Females tend to be shorter and branchier due to their raceme type inflorescence than males, whose flowers grow in panicles.
The males are then usually culled when they are identified, so that the females will not be pollinated, thus producing parthenocarpic fruits popularly called "sinsemilla", meaning "without seed".
During the vegetative phase, cultivators generally employ an to hour photoperiod because the plants grow more quickly if they receive more light, although a warmer and cooler period are required for optimal health.
Although no dark period is required, there is debate among cultivators as to whether a dark period is beneficial, and many continue to employ a dark period.
Energy savings often support using a dark period, as plants undergo late day decline and therefore lighting during the late night hours is less effective.
The amount of time to grow a cannabis plant indoors in the vegetative stage depends on the size of the flower, the light used, the size of the space, and how many plants are intended to flower at once, and how big the strain gets in "the stretch" i.
Cannabis cultivators employ fertilizers high in nitrogen and potassium during the vegetative stage, as well as a complete micro nutrient fertilizer.
The strength of the fertilizer is gradually increased as the plants grow and become more hardy. The emphasis on advanced cultivation techniques, as well as the availability of hybrid strains with names like Northern Lights , Master Kush , NYC Diesel , is believed to be a factor in the increase in the overall quality and variety of commercially available cannabis over the past few decades.
The Internet in particular has brought together widely diverse genetics from around the world through trading and purchasing. However, well-grown heirloom strains e.
Also called the stretch , this takes one day to two weeks. Most plants spend 10—14 days in this period after switching the light cycle to 12 hours of darkness.
Plant development increases dramatically, with the plant doubling or more in size. See reproductive development below. Production of more branches and nodes occurs during this stage, as the structure for flowering grows.
Pre-flowering indicates the plant is ready to flower. The flowering phase varies from about 6 to 22 weeks for pure indicas with their shorter flowering time than pure sativas.
The sex is clearly revealed in the first phase, the actual flowering. Males produce little ball-like flowers clustered together like grapes called panicles.
Most plants except auto flowering strains that flower independently of photoperiod begin to flower under diminishing light. In nature, cannabis plants sense the forthcoming winter as the Earth revolves about the Sun and daylight reduces in duration see also season.
The next phase consists in the fruition or fruiting : the females inflorescences that were not pollinated i. Fertilized females continue to produce resinous trichomes but more plant energy is consumed by the production of seeds, which can be half the mass of a fertilized bract; thus, to maximize resin per gram, infertile cultivation is preferred.
Inflorescence that produce no seeds are called sin semilla which translates to "without seeds" in Spanish, and is often misspelled as one word.
Potent sin semilla is especially important to medical users, to minimize the amount of cannabis they must consume to be afforded relief.
Cannabis grown is induced into flowering by decreasing its photoperiod to at least 10 hours of darkness per day. In order to initiate a flowering response, the number of hours of darkness must exceed a critical point.
Generally the more hours of darkness each day, the shorter the overall flowering period but the lower the yield. Conversely, the fewer hours of darkness each day, the longer the overall flowering period and the higher the yield.
Traditionally, most growers change their plants lighting cycle to 12 hours on and 12 hours off since this works as a happy medium to which most strains respond well.
This change in photoperiod mimics the plant's natural outdoor cycle, with up to 18 hours of light per day in the summer and down to less than 12 hours of light in fall and winter.
Usually they can start flowering in July and finish far earlier than other strains, particularly those that haven't been bred as outdoor strains.
Semi-autoflowering strains can be harvested before the weather in northern latitudes becomes very wet and cold generally October , whereas other strains are just finishing flowering, and may suffer from botrytis grey mold caused by wet weather.
Alternatively growers may artificially induce the flowering period during the warmer months by blacking out the plants for 12 hours a day i.
Although the flowering hormone in most plants including cannabis is present during all phases of growth, it is inhibited by exposure to light.
To induce flowering, the plant must be subject to at least 8 hours of darkness per day; this number is very strain-specific and most growers use 12 hours of darkness.
Flowers from certain plants e. In the first weeks of flowering a plant usually doubles in size and can triple.
During this time the buds greatly increase in weight and size. Cannabis can be grown outdoors, either on natural soil or in pots of pre-made or commercial soil.
Some strains perform better than others in outdoor settings, an attribute that depends on different conditions, variables and aspects.
Outdoor marijuana strains, like most other strains, can be bought in numerous locations and over a hundred different cannabis strains that are bred for outdoor growing exist—many of these outdoor cannabis seeds are simply copies of other pre-existent strains or seeds with different names and descriptions.
To generate optimum quantities of THC-containing resin, the plant needs a fertile soil and long hours of daylight. In most places of the subtropics , cannabis is germinated from late spring to early summer and harvested from late summer to early autumn.
Outdoor cultivation is common in both rural and urban areas. Outdoor cultivators tend to grow indica-based strains because of its heavy yields, quick maturing time, and short stature.
Some growers prefer sativa because of its clear-headed cerebral high, better response to sunlight, and lower odor emissions.
Growers cultivate on their own property or practice guerrilla farming i. For outdoor cultivation, growers choose areas that receive twelve hours or more of sunlight a day.
In the Northern Hemisphere, growers typically plant seeds in mid-April, late May, or early June to provide plants a full four to nine months of growth.
Harvest is usually between mid-September and early October. In North America, northern locations are preferred North Coast of California and British Columbia being particularly notable , but southern locations such as Maui, Hawaii are also known to be good producers.
Where local laws do not permit growing cannabis, cultivators sometimes grow in forests or rugged and rural areas where the local population is unlikely to find the crop.
Cannabis is also grown hidden by a crop that is taller, such as maize. This is reported by the United States government to be common in the midwestern states.
Some government agencies, including the Drug Enforcement Administration DEA , have claimed that in State and National Parks people have been injured by cannabis farmers protecting their crops using booby traps; no arrests or convictions for this had been made as of [update].
Cannabis can be grown indoors in a soil-like medium under artificial light, adding fertilizer when the plants are given water.
Cultivating cannabis indoors is more complicated and expensive than growing outdoors, but it allows the cultivator complete control over the growing environment.
Plants of any type can be grown faster indoors than out due to hour light, additional atmospheric CO 2 , and controlled humidity which allows freer CO 2 respiration.
Plants can also be grown indoors through the use of hydroponics. To grow plants indoors, a growing medium e.
There are several different plant grow lights available. Currently the best source of light for cannabis remains to be metal halide or ceramic metal halide in the range of k.
Cannabis plants also require both dark and light photoperiods , so the lights need a timer to switch them on and off at set intervals.
The optimum photoperiod depends on each plant some prefer long days and short nights and others preferring the opposite, or something in between.
Recent advancements in LED technology have allowed for diodes that emit enough energy for cannabis cultivation. These diodes can emit light in a specific nanometer range, allowing for total control over the spectrum of the light.
LEDs are able to produce all of their light in the photosynthetically active range PAR of the spectrum.
Reflectors are often used in the lamps to maximize light efficiency. Maximum efficiency can be obtained by creating a slightly concave canopy such that the periphery and centre of the canopy are both at the optimum distance from the light source.
Often, the distance between lamp and plant is in the range of 0. With proper cooling any light type can be moved extremely close to plants to combat the inverse square law, but there are reasons to keep some distance from the canopy regardless of heat concerns; excessive light can cause bleaching of the plant material and the total canopy area contacted by light is decreased as the source is moved closer.
Maximum efficiency should be obtained by maximizing the average light intensity measured in PAR watts per square foot times the number of square feet of plant matter contacted.
Some cannabis cultivators cover the walls of their grow-room with some type of reflective material often Mylar or Visqueen , or alternatively, white paint to maximize efficiency.
The plastic is installed with the white side facing into the room to reflect light, and the black facing the wall, to reduce fungus and mold growth.
Another common covering is flat white paint, with a high titanium dioxide content to maximize reflectivity. Some growers consider Mylar sheeting to be very effective when it lines grow room walls, along with Astrofoil which also reflects heat , and Foylon a foil-laminated, reinforced fabric.
When growing indoors, the cultivator should maintain as close to an ideal atmosphere inside the grow-room as possible.
Adequate levels of CO 2 must be maintained for the plants to grow efficiently. It is also important to promote vigorous air circulation within the grow room, which is usually accomplished by mounting an extraction fan and one or more oscillating fans.
Assuming adequate light and nutrients are available to plants, the limiting factor in plant growth is the level of carbon dioxide CO 2.
Ways of increasing carbon dioxide levels in the grow-room include: bottled carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide generators, a milk jug and yeast solution in which yeast grows in a container thereby emitting CO 2 , a baking soda and vinegar mixture in a container, or dry ice.
Certain plants e. This presents difficulties to those who are cultivating in places where it is illegal, or for growers who may prefer discretion for other reasons.
The most common way of eliminating odor is by pulling odorous air through a carbon filter. Many cultivators simply attach a large carbon filter to their air extraction system, thereby filtering any smell before the air is expelled from the grow-room.
Operation Marijuana Filme wie Operation MarijuanaEr nutzt den Umzug in eine andere Stadt, um sich an einer Schule anzumelden, aber opinion quartett damour stream assured um der Tochter der neuen Nachbarn nahe zu sein, in die er sich verliebt hat. Trending: Meist diskutierte Filme. Neu ab 0. Originaltitel Growing Op. Schauspielerinnen und Schauspieler. Jetzt streamen:. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Visa-Nummer. Aktuelle News zu weiteren Filmen.
The main problem with this location is the distance from serious civilization. Getting the amount of electricity and water to the area has caused problems for buildings that need to draw enough electricity to power a small town.
Still, investors like GFarma and Canndescent, who just raised 6. Since the legalization of recreational marijuana in California there will be much more of a need for product, in the already busy medical marijuana market.
Keep an eye on this small I pit stop in the next year for openings of many big-time operations. One of the largest grow operations in Europe lies in Switzerland.
This six year old facility was opened to produce the low potency, legal cannabis for Swiss connoisseurs.
The owners of the grow operation focus on oil products that they extract from their three thousand plants, but also supplies flowers.
Kannaswiss produces their marijuana products of one percent or less THC content in a country pot barn in their native Switzerland.
The legal marijuana industry is still blossoming across Europe, but countries like Spain and Switzerland are now participating in recreational use of the plant.
Harborside Farms is a forty-seven-acre cannabis farm in Northern California. The perfect growing climate is found in this valley that until recently has been home to produce farmers and cut flower growers.
The owners of Harborside took advantage of the old flower greenhouses and expanded their project to cover the acreage with hundreds of cannabis growing greenhouses.
This massive operation boasts , square feet of growing space and an impressive , plants. With fierce competition in the California market the veteran owners of Harborside are looking to scale quickly and be able to produce mass amount of marijuana in their new facility.
Located just outside of the capital city of Santiago, the Daya Foundation has successfully set up the largest legal grow operation in Latin America.
The purpose of this grow op is to produce medicinal marijuana for patients across the country.
In , the country deemed medical marijuana to be legal and available for patients in need. Daya got to work on their farm and came up with a facility to help the masses.
The current farm is looking to yield 1. So far, Daya is the main producer of legal cannabis in the country and plans to continue to serve patients through the new facility.
The foundation provides education and access to many forms of supplemental alternative treatments including, reiki and acupuncture as well as marijuana.
With Latin America now throwing marijuana into the conversation more often now, we could see more from this company in the near future.
Your email address will not be published. A Type 1 diabetic, Rush required daily insulin to manage his blood sugar, but as a recovering addict, Rush had to be careful with anything else he put into his body.
It would be up for a vote the next year. Rush pondered it. How would the world change if any adult could buy pot in the open?
Just like alcohol? Just like alcohol. That was the phrase that caromed through his skull, and in that moment, he recognized a massive opportunity for unions like his.
Unions increase their power by adding new members, and they add new members by organizing workers. Rush saw that if pot were treated like liquor — taxed, regulated, sold by corporations instead of outlaws — a new industry would rise up, creating hundreds of thousands of new jobs.
There could be union budtenders. Union builders of hydroponic greenhouses. Union infusers of cannabis into chocolates. Years before the political mainstream started to embrace legal cannabis in bits and pieces, Rush was already imagining a scenario of almost limitless potential.
In his lifetime, union-busting laws and the collapse of the manufacturing sector had shrunk the size and power of Big Labor.
Legal pot, he realized, was a chance to rebuild the movement and breathe new life into struggling towns that depend on union jobs.
He visualized a typical nuclear family making a living in weed: Mom works at the local dispensary, dad makes edibles at the production facility, and the tax revenues from those businesses fund schools for their kids and hospitals for their community.
It was a life raft for the drowning American middle class. Outlaw businesses in America tend to get squashed by cops and rescued by capitalists.
Every era has its examples. Dingy gambling dens become Las Vegas hotels. Music-pirating apps give way to Apple Music and Spotify.
Investors and politicians notice that a black market can be lifted into the light, and then it is tamed and taxed and generally made safe for cities and states and corporate empires to benefit.
Yet there is often a Wild West moment in the middle, when the rules are still shifting, vast fortunes can be seeded or squandered, and everyone with a stake is scrambling for position: lawmakers, entrepreneurs, cops.
Yet no major California politicians supported his vision. We were a pariah. The main cause of that fear was the U. The Drug Enforcement Administration staged raids and sent agents to cut down plants; the Internal Revenue Service investigated the finances of dispensary owners; the Department of Justice asked federal judges to stop dispensaries from selling pot, even to cancer patients.
In such an uncertain atmosphere, California elected officials and even their aides refused to meet with Prop. Yet in that goal he seemed completely sincere, and he quickly proved useful to the underdog campaign, lending it the halo of the UFCW brand.
He convinced the union to endorse Prop. High Times? Rush also connected the Prop. Outlaw gangs make money by selling drugs, among other things; no one wanted the Angels to think the ballot measure might threaten their business.
Pitching Prop. The very next day, Sky Jones said, a Prop. She got a funny sense that the official wanted a donation or a bribe.
After the meeting, she asked Rush about it. He believed that if the union applied enough political pressure, fighting to liberalize cannabis laws, the nascent industry would realize that Big Labor was its friend, and cannabis companies would gladly let the union represent their workers.
All he needed to get started was a test case, an employer willing to take the plunge. He found one in Carl and Forrest Anderson.
The father and son first met Rush in early , introduced through a mutual friend. The Andersons explained their plight: They were marijuana crusaders who used to run a mom-and-pop dispensary in Oakland, spreading the gospel of the plant.
Their dream was to reopen the club, and they needed a new license to do it. Rush said he could help them.
By using the union to lobby the council, Rush could persuade Oakland to reopen the licensing process and expand the size of the market.
Then, if the Andersons signed a labor deal with the UFCW, agreeing to pay union dues once they were up and running, the union would support their license bid, giving them an edge.
Father and son were encouraged. Rush seemed excited too. He said it would be easy to champion them because they believed so deeply in the cause.
He spoke so highly of them. It brings credibility to what we are doing. Rush mainly dealt with the father and son.
When he saw them, he wrapped them in a bear hug. The Andersons say that in spring , Rush began to show up at their building on West Grand accompanied by prominent local officials.
Kaplan did not return requests for comment. Through his spokesman, Newsom did not respond to repeated requests to comment on his relationship with Rush.
According to Carl, Rush took credit for these developments. He seemed to know everyone in the world. TerBeek lived in Berkeley and worked from a law office in Oakland.
Whenever Rush needed a legal brief or contract to advance the cause, TerBeek wrote it. Hoffa, son of Jimmy Hoffa. They began helping each other professionally.
TerBeek also leaned on his new friend for support during a rough period in his personal life. In , the attorney and his wife divorced and he became depressed.
His drinking spiraled out of control; Rush noticed and urged him to enter Alcoholics Anonymous. This is the moment when their personal and financial relations started to become deeply and intricately enmeshed.
Ultimately, it would lead both men to ruin. Similarly, Rush started referring cannabis clients to TerBeek, hooking him up with companies and officials who needed help navigating weed regulations.
By the end of , the alcoholic attorney had salvaged his life and career. Jasmine Brown was a fundraiser for nonprofits. She and TerBeek moved in together that year and began the process of adopting an infant daughter.
In , Rush would attend their wedding. Your success now is because of me. TerBeek knew he had Rush to thank for his resurrection.
But it was strange: The better he felt, the colder his sponsor became. He asked TerBeek for money. In any case, the money was now gone, and the loan was about to come due.
For the first time in their friendship, but not the last, Rush and TerBeek argued about money. Besides, they were starting to explore their most exciting venture yet: building the cannabis movement.
Rush needed a detail-oriented person to craft legal arguments and contracts, and TerBeek was all in. He viewed pot the way Rush did: not as a lifestyle but as a political weapon, a hammer for smashing America into a lovelier shape.
As the parent of an adopted African American daughter from his previous marriage, TerBeek worried about her exposure to racist policing.
Decriminalizing cannabis would make the country fairer, he reasoned, and it might be good for his law practice too: If he developed a reputation as a cannabis attorney, he could attract big-time weed companies as clients.
Just then, around December , TerBeek heard from a young man in the cannabis world. Quick-thinking, ambitious and only 26, Martin Kaufman was a weed prodigy.
Kaufman specialized in building large grow facilities, designing everything from the layout to the electrical and HVAC systems.
His work straddled the line between the old outlaw industry and the new legal one: Although his own businesses were licensed and paid taxes, his grower clients were technically flouting federal drug laws — and they paid Kaufman in cash.
But for a while now, he had hoped to move more fully into the light, branching into the retail side of cannabis. He wanted to own a dispensary in Oakland.
His office was located across the street from Oaksterdam University, the stronghold of the Prop.
Montel Williams, the talk-show host, was rumored to desire a dispensary. Another hopeful was Derek Peterson, a year-old financial analyst who had left a job at Morgan Stanley to seek his fortune in legal weed.
Peterson had founded Terra Tech, a publicly traded company headquartered in Irvine that supplied cannabis agriculture products and was looking to expand into distribution and retail.
And that is: cutthroat, backstabbing, stepping on, and trying to grab market share. Wondering how he could compete, Kaufman took stock of his finances.
The problem was documentation. Cities usually require dispensary applicants to demonstrate access to startup capital; he would need to show bank statements.
But he dealt in cash. Sometimes lots of cash. Was it possible to place that much cash into a bank account?
What were the tax implications? He decided to get a professional opinion. He had never dealt with TerBeek before but knew that the lawyer had touted his financial expertise, so Kaufman approached TerBeek with his questions.
TerBeek promised to handle all the details. He manipulated weak and vulnerable people. I was one.
Why take such risks to bail Rush out of debt? Two reasons, TerBeek says: fear and hope. At the time, TerBeek also rationalized the financial sleight of hand by telling himself it was for a higher cause.
The movement. It needed hard-driving people like Rush and Kaufman, especially in , as the enemies of legalization seemed to grow bolder.
His comments raised the specter of messy legal battles, and Prop. Then, starting in , the top federal prosecutor in Northern California, Melinda Haag, leveraged a range of powers to make life difficult for growers, retailers and public officials backing reform.
She filed a forfeiture lawsuit against Harborside in Oakland, the largest dispensary on the West Coast. Although he was never charged with any crime, the raid struck at the citadel of Bay Area cannabis and forced Lee into silence.
Together, these events sent a chilling message, and the effect was devastating: Hundreds of dispensaries either left California or closed, while public officials across the state put new cannabis regulations on hold.
Outgunned and in retreat, the young industry seemed to be facing an existential threat. At a Los Angeles drug-reform conference in November , he took the podium, planning to speak about the role of organized labor in the marijuana movement.
Over the next year, he lobbied for bills that would protect medical marijuana patients and providers and crisscrossed California making speeches.
At one rally, outside the U. Duffy, the filmmaker, remembers that around this time, Rush invited him to tour the sprawling marijuana greenhouse at Oaksterdam University.
A couple of high-ranking Hells Angels were hanging out with Rush — guys Duffy had read books about — and Rush seemed more intense than usual.
Rush continued to extend his influence over the politics and business of cannabis, locally and even nationally. In the Bay Area, he became a member of the Berkeley Medical Cannabis Commission, giving him some power to approve or deny pot licenses in that city.
By mid he was promoting his vision across the country, traveling thousands of miles a week with his friend Brian Webster, who was hired as a part-time organizer for the union.
Everywhere they went, people came up to them, wanting advice on starting cannabis businesses, getting licenses, writing ballot measures, running campaigns.
Everyone is too comfy. He bragged that he turned 4, cannabis workers into UFCW members; Webster says the real number was closer to , but even that figure may be inflated.
Rush said he signed 90 union agreements with cannabis companies; the FBI says many of those were sham deals, the contracts never forwarded to union headquarters.
Still, Rush certainly left traces of his influence, pressing his thumbs into the wet clay of media coverage and shaping the policy views of sympathetic politicians.
And he played a role in persuading at least one major elected official to embrace the decriminalization of pot: Gavin Newsom.
In , Newsom became one of the first major politicians to call for full legalization, helping inject the idea into the zeitgeist.
The more time Rush and Webster spent on the road, the more momentum they felt. The trips were grueling, though, the motion and blur of planes and hotels.
And he fretted about surveillance. Had his name pinged across the radar of some federal agent? Was he being watched?
This next part of the Dan Rush story is a little tricky to tell. Everyone involved has his own wildly different version, and trying to figure out what happened is like tracing the origin of a mysterious explosion by sorting through its field of debris.
The ingredients of the blast came together in Oakland between and early , while the city was selecting four cannabis dispensaries to receive new licenses.
It was a challenging process, involving public hearings and long paper applications scored on a point system, and looming above it was the specter of the federal crackdown.
That pressure shrank the applicant pool; only 12 groups dared to try. The Andersons were among them, and for a while it seemed they were on track to win one of the four golden tickets.
The Andersons were ranked No. Then again, the whole process felt weird to the father and son, and it was getting weirder by the week.
He betrayed us. He was a crook. Dan Rush. Lately, instead of offering his usual bear hugs, he was growing meaner.
He got irritated when they medicated themselves with pot, implying that they were too blazed to understand anything about business.
Blüm was the creation of Salwa Ibrahim, an entrepreneur in her late 20s. A native of Egypt who went to high school in Oakland, she had worked for Lee at Oaksterdam during the Prop.
She was also the romantic partner of Martin Kaufman, who was impressed with her poise and found her stunning, and as they talked about cannabis together and tried to predict the future of the market, Ibrahim decided to apply for a dispensary license.
She developed the application package mostly on her own, she says, with some coaching from Kaufman and a Kaufman owned part of the new dispensary company too.
The Blüm group had little in common with the Andersons. For one thing, Blüm was indifferent to unionization; Ibrahim had avoided signing a deal with the UFCW, feeling that Rush was shady and disliking his constant cloud of Lucky Strike smoke.
And both she and Kaufman prided themselves on their business savvy. For the Andersons, the real trouble began with a small patch of weed that Carl decided to grow in a back building at their vacant dispensary.
He figured he could sell some of it to replenish his dwindling funds while he waited for the license. Rush says he never told Carl not to pay taxes and that Carl made the decision not to pay them on his own.
Nervous, he sought legal advice from TerBeek, who told him to blame his high electrical bills on leaky refrigerator seals, Carl says.
The Andersons were busted, and in March, the city disqualified their license application, saying they had been dishonest.
All they had left now was their rented storefront on West Grand Avenue. But without a license, they lost their grip on it.
I hollered and I yelled. I am a passionate man. There are multiple accounts of what happened here. Rush and TerBeek say that Carl acted erratically and made a series of poor decisions that led to his demise.
But Carl was now convinced that the two men had screwed him over. The Andersons were angriest at Rush. The FBI would ultimately find that the Blüm partners did nothing wrong; they won their license fairly and were unaware of any behind-the-scenes maneuvering.
But with Rush, the wound was personal. The episode left them consumed with guilt and regret. He pictured all the money he had given to Rush for no benefit at all.
Carl, curious, called him back. The agent explained that one of his sources had overheard Carl talking about corruption — would he like to discuss further?
His black hair was long and fell to his shoulders. Wynar, it turned out, had followed a unique path to the bureau. As a young man he spent seven years as a Marine Corps officer, flying helicopters.
After reading some true-crime books about La Cosa Nostra, he noticed that the FBI was looking for technical-minded people.
He applied and became an agent in , ending up in Oakland, where he was assigned to investigate public corruption, civil rights abuses and complex financial fraud.
During one interview the agent was joined by a supervisor in the public corruption division, and each time a FBI spokesman observed.
Wynar has a friendly, self-effacing conversational style. This is more or less what happened with the Andersons: Soon after they got to talking with Wynar, their initial nervousness turned to a sort of relief.
The promise of a license. Meetings with politicians, contributions to their campaigns. The increasing demands for money from Rush. Then the betrayal by Superman and his lawyer partner.
Not holding back, the Andersons admitted they had been growing pot. I told them they can't be like that anymore and they were entirely squared away from that point forward.
It was a while before they believed us. If they were telling the truth, Rush was flagrantly violating the Taft-Hartley Act, a law that curbs the power of unions.
Though the labor movement has long resented Taft-Hartley, viewing it as an attack on working people, the law includes a provision meant to keep union officials honest, barring them from accepting things of value from companies that employ their members.
If Rush was taking cash from the Andersons, he was committing potentially serious felonies. The FBI agent was skeptical: Lawyers who commit crimes or work against the interest of their clients can end up disbarred, and for that reason, it was rare to find one who was an actual crook.
Wynar wondered whether the pot-smoking witnesses were simply paranoid, or whether they were telling lies as part of a revenge scheme, hoping the FBI would investigate their enemies.
Still, Wynar was struck by the level of detail they provided about money and power in Oakland. Wynar was also impressed that they were willing to talk at all.
He wondered: What could provoke a couple of pioneering weed dealers to walk into a building packed to the gills with cops and dish about corruption in their world?
How bad must it be out there? Although public corruption can take hold anywhere, it usually requires two accelerants — cash and dysfunction — to spread widely.
When cash collides with a government process, some officials are tempted to reach out their hands, and when that process is confusing or arbitrary, businesspeople have an incentive to get things done by paying bribes.
The complicated, cash-soaked world of medical marijuana made for a nearly ideal corruption breeding ground. The vague, contested legal status of cannabis — partly regulated by the state, banned by the feds, unevenly embraced by mayors and city councils — left key decisions in the hands of local officials, and the industry was pumping rivers of cash into their cities.
At the time, Wynar was pursuing a fraud investigation, and Peterson, it turned out, was not the perpetrator but the victim — he was being ripped off by one of his business colleagues.
The agent always assumed that old-school cannabis types like the Andersons would be the big winners of legalization: The glaciers of the old bans would keep melting, and the outlaws would come in from the cold.
Instead, these Wall Street guys were racing across the ice. Instead of refusing to talk with the FBI, Peterson volunteered to be a source.
And in late , he ended up providing the tip that first led Wynar to Carl Anderson: Peterson was the one who overheard Carl raging about corruption.
After Wynar sat down with the Andersons and heard their tale, he wanted to use them to gather evidence. In theory, they could become confidential witnesses, recording phone calls and in-person meetings with Rush and TerBeek.
As far as the agent and his colleagues could tell, no one in the DOJ had ever partnered with someone like Carl Anderson, a man who had once sold and might still sell millions of dollars in cannabis products under a state law that the federal government considered illegitimate.
But Wynar believed there was much to gain and little to risk. Nineteen states had legalized marijuana in some form.
Soon enough, in much of America, weed would be just another product, normal as coffee. And in a world where cannabis was being normalized, cannabis firms were not much different from other businesses that require licenses and are therefore vulnerable to corrupt officials.
After running the idea up their respective chains of command, Wynar and his prosecutor colleagues got the green light. But they soon realized that the father and son were of limited use as informants.
The Andersons, it seemed, had already spooked people in Oakland by making noise about corruption, and besides, everyone knew they had no money left.
No one was likely to tell them anything incriminating. Wynar needed another way to get close to the targets. So he contacted Peterson, who had already been providing information on other cases.
The weed CEO agreed to help with the new probe. In March , Peterson began secretly recording conversations with Rush, and later with TerBeek as well.
A few months after recruiting Peterson, Wynar also reached out to Martin Kaufman, leaving his business card at the office of the Millennial weed entrepreneur.
Kaufman tried not to freak out. He dialed the number on the card. Wynar picked up. His voice was polite, friendly. He said he appreciated the call back.
Yee would later be convicted of racketeering. The FBI asked Kaufman only about political impropriety at first.
At that point, Wynar also revealed that he knew about the bag of cash; his investigation had dug up information about it.